TOD Europe

The goal of this project is to understand the concept of transit-oriented development within Europe. We want to identify typologies of transit-oriented development places in several cities of Europe, by applying the ‘extended node-place model’ (Vale, 2015). This will allow to update and validate the original methodology, and also to understand if all found typologies are present in several cities. 

Finally, we intend to understand if the typologies are useful to promote the integration of urban and transport planning.


Published articles:

Vale, D. S., Viana, C. M., & Pereira, M. (2018). The extended node-place model at the local scale : Evaluating the integration of land use and transport for Lisbon’s subway network. Journal of Transport Geography, 69, 282–293.

Abstract: Car dependency and associated car modal share is increasing in the vast majority of metropolitan areas throughout the world, and an important contributory factor lies in the lack of clear and effective integration of land use with transportation. Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been adopted as a major urban policy to achieve such integration. TOD explicitly promotes a balance between public transportation-driven supply and land use-driven demand, while simultaneously improving the pedestrian friendliness of the station areas. The objective of balancing transport with land use is the founding principle of the node-place model. Three principle dimensions can be evaluated under the extended version of this model: i) the node-index, reflecting the ac- cessibility of the station area by several transportation modes; ii) the place-index, reflecting the land use features of the station areas; and iii) the design-index, reflecting the urban design conditions that influence pedestrian accessibility of the station areas. In this paper, we apply the extended node-place model at a local scale, using Lisbon subway stations as the focus points of our analysis, applying the same principles and methodology as for the metropolitan scale, but adjusting the parameters to reflect the subway network. Our results suggest that the introduction of a third index better distinguishes between balanced situations identified in the original node- place model. In Lisbon, the average node index is higher than the place index, and the design index varies substantially across the subway network. In general terms, city center subway stations exhibit the highest index values, whereas peripheral stations tend to be more unbalanced. Transfer stations constitute special cases in the network, having high node and design indexes but average place indexes. The typology of Lisbon subway sta- tions based on the extended node-place model might be used to support urban planning, specifically with regard to establishing regulations for locating activities and parking supply, guiding location-sensitive or place-based fiscal policies, and also identifying the types of intervention needed to achieve the desired integration between transportation accessibility, land use intensity and diversity, and urban design.


Vale, David S. (2015) Transit-oriented development, integration of land use and transport, and pedestrian accessibility: Combining node-place model with pedestrian shed ratio to evaluate and classify station areas in Lisbon. Journal of Transport Geography, 45, 70-80.

Abstract: Transit-oriented development is being actively promoted as an urban design model for areas around transit stations. In addition, planning for accessibility is being promoted, which requires integrating land use with transportation planning, and to match the transportation features with the intensity and diversity of land use of the station areas. Nevertheless, and despite the evident similarities between the two approaches, an integrated evaluation tool of a station area in terms of its transportation, land use, and urban design features is missing. In this paper, we bring into the literature on integration of land use and transport a key feature of the transit-oriented development literature: the urban design features of the station areas, in particular their pedestrian friendliness. By complementing the node-place model with an evaluation of the pedestrian connectivity of station areas of Lisbon, we combine these two perspectives in order to evaluate and classify station areas in three different aspects: land use, transportation, and walkability conditions. Our results show that a balanced node-place is not necessarily a transit-oriented development, and vice versa, and so a complementary analysis of both is useful to identify and classify a station area. Therefore, we suggest a typology of station areas based on the three components, which might be used as a planning tool for the development of the station areas into balanced transit-oriented development areas.


Feel free to contact us if you want a copy of any of our published papers.